Exploring the efficacy of discrepant events for improving conceptual understanding of particulate nature of matter in Grade VI students

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Sadia Bhutta


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Under quantitative paradigm, this study investigates the effectiveness of the discrepant events (DE) in improving the conceptual understanding of particulate nature of matter and phase changes (PNM & PC) in grade VI students in a public school in Upper Chitral. Employing a pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design with a delayed post-test, a total of 36 Grade VI students participated in this study. The study utilized a Conceptual Change Assessment Tool (CCAT) for data collection, developed and validated as part of the study. Prior to the intervention, a pre-test was conducted as a baseline. Following that, a 280 minutes’ intervention was carried out where the students were taught the concepts related to PNM & PC using the DE. The next day of intervention, a post-test was administered to assess the improvement in students’ performance after teaching with DE. Moreover, fourteen days later the delayed post-test was administered to gauge the level of concept retention.
The results indicated a significant overall difference in students’ performance with a large effect size (p = 0.001; W= 0.69). Furthermore, the post-hoc demonstrated a noteworthy enhancement in post-test (p<0.001; r=-0.87) with a notable magnitude while, the overall scores dropped significantly in delayed post-test. The decrease in magnitude from post to delayed post (p<0.001; r=-0.56) depicts the lack of retention. However, the comparison of pre-and delayed post-tests favoured the later (P<0.001; r=-0.82) with a notable magnitude indicating retention resulting from teaching with discrepant events. Results of the current study are important as discrepant events are helpful in inducing conceptual change and concept retention, by adding to literature about discrepant events in the context of Pakistan (Upper Chitral).

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