Exploring the integration of 21st Century 4C skills in Grade 12 of a private school in Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Moladad Shafa


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The fast-paced world of the 21st Century demands educational institutions to seamlessly integrate 21st Century 4C Skills with core subjects, shaping students into skilled and effective learners. Core subject knowledge is not enough alone to navigate the complexities of our globally interconnected lives. Thus, integrating 21st Century 4C Skills into daily teaching and learning has become a priority, as it not only enhances personal development but also prepares individuals to face the challenges and opportunities of the modern age. A school under AKESP, in Karachi is effectively integrating 21st Century 4C skills into teaching-learning. A case study was conducted using qualitative research design to explore how the school integrates the 4Cs in Grade 12 teaching-learning. The study involved the headteacher of the school, four teachers who teach in Grade 12 -one from each subject English, Mathematics, Chemistry, and Pakistan Studies. The data was collected via semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. In addition, field notes were taken, and some important documents were analyzed. Findings revealed that although integration of 21st Century 4C skills was a daunting task, the headteacher’s and teachers’ understanding and knowledge of the need of 4Cs accelerated the integration in teaching-learning. They are equipped and ready to integrate the 21st Century 4C skills with some acknowledging the importance of integration whilst others seeed less ready. The study also found that the nature of the examination system influenced classroom instructions, advocating conceptual learning. Therefore, student-centered teaching strategies such as group discussion, pair discussion with experiential learning, real-world applications, and the frequent use of digital technology were considered effective by teachers and headteacher. Moreover, Students were encouraged and frequently assisted by the school to participate in various national and international events and competitions to develop these skills. Although teachers and the headteacher integrate 4Cs in teaching-learning, the huge amount of Grade 12 SLOs, larger class size, co-education, and students’ only interest in science subjects presented challenges for effective integration of 4C Skills. The headteacher and the school assist teachers by organizing various sessions and providing resources to overcome these challenges.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library