Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr.Tazeen Saeed Ali


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic illness. It remains to be a major public health matter and a financial burden on the medical system worldwide. This condition can be managed and better treatment strategies and compliance can reduce the risk of complications. In 2022, there will be around 33,000,000 new cases of diabetes worldwide, with 26.7% of the adults in Pakistan being affected, predicts the (International Diabetes Federation, 2022). However, it is observed that most individuals turn to complementary and alternative methods (CAM)/Traditional medicine because of the rising cost of therapy, adverse effects of anti-diabetic medications, and accessibility concerns.
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the association between medication compliance and usage of complementary therapies and its effects on HbA1c among known type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, at a Tertiary Care Hospital, in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: The quantitative cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Endocrinology clinic at Aga Khan University Hospital. All the participants having Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and age above 18 years were selected to participate in the study, after giving their consent and filling out the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised four main sections: demographic data, diabetes-related information, medication compliance, and CAM use details. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics and chi-square to assess the associations between medication compliance and the use of complementary therapies and their effect on HbA1c.
Results: One hundred and eighty T2DM patients completed the questionnaire (response rate: 80%). The results of the study concluded that in the majority of the participants, medication compliance had a strong association with HbA1c levels. Overall, the analysis indicates that CAM use does not significantly impact HbA1c levels in this study population.
Conclusion: The study concluded that participants who are compliant with their conventional medication regime show a strong association with HbA1c. However, regarding complementary therapies analysis showed no significance to HbA1c. The findings of the current study are consistent with past researches, demonstrating the reliability of these findings. The quality of patient experience and the treatment results for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can be improved by using these findings to shape healthcare strategies that emphasize patient-focused communication and education.