Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Laila Ladak


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Background: Preoperative anxiety is characterized by an intense sensation of fear, apprehension, and nervousness. In the domain of cardiac surgery, the assessment and management of preoperative anxiety is of paramount importance, as it plays a pivotal role in shaping the patient's surgical experience and immediate postoperative outcomes. While the etiology of preoperative anxiety is multifaceted, the influence of sociodemographic factors in this context is of paramount importance. However, limited studies have been conducted in developing countries regarding this phenomenon.
Purpose: The study aimed to identify the frequency of preoperative anxiety, its contributing factors, and its impact on immediate postoperative outcomes among all adult elective cardiac surgery patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional analytical study design was used to address the study question. The non-probability convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a total of 106 consecutive patients planned for elective cardiac surgery. This study was conducted at the cardiac surgery units of the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. According to the hospital's policy, patients are admitted an evening before the surgery, during which the primary investigator approached and recruited patients who met the eligibility criteria. The data was collected from the study participants through structured questionnaires, and by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scale. Moreover, the association of patient characteristics including socio-demographic, preoperative and postoperative clinical characteristics with anxiety was assessed by using one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation.
Findings: The study enrolled 106 (49 males and 57 females) patients. Their mean age was 46.4 ± 15.72 (range 18-80 years). The findings of the study revealed that 67% of the cardiac surgery patients experienced mild to moderate levels of preoperative anxiety. Furthermore, the analysis of independent variables showed that there was a statistically significant relationship of patient’s age (r= - 0.74, p<0.05), patient’s gender (t=3.41, p<0.05), patient’s educational level (F= 4.04, p<0.05) and postoperative pain (r= 0.96, p<0.01) with preoperative anxiety.
Conclusion: This study's results shed light on the hidden burden of preoperative anxiety among cardiac surgery patients in developing countries, emphasizing the crucial need for comprehensive preoperative assessment and patient-centered interventions. By understanding the contributing factors and their impact on immediate postoperative outcomes, healthcare providers and policymakers can strive to enhance the quality of care for these patients. Ultimately, this study's findings aim to pave the way for more compassionate, patient-centric, and effective healthcare practices, with the potential to improve the surgical journey and overall well-being of cardiac surgery patients in developing countries.

Included in

Nursing Commons