Exploring Science pedagogies of elementary teachers: A case study from Sindh

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Tasneem Anwar


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Teachers’ use of science pedagogies in the classroom plays a pivotal role in students’ learning. The idea of using research-based science pedagogies to enhance students' scientific understanding need exploration in the context of Pakistan. This study explores the science pedagogies in teachers’ practice at the elementary level in Higher Education Institution (HEI) schools of districts Larkana and Ghotki. The study follows multiple case study as a research design with the interpretivist approach as a research paradigm. Purposive sampling is used to select four science teachers; two from each participating school at the elementary level. Data collection employs tools like semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, document analysis and pedagogy case analysis. David Ausubel’s theoretical framework for learning and instruction is used to see the participating science teachers’ pedagogies and three distinct cases of science pedagogies were found. Muntaha and Kaif were found at didactic direct pedagogical spectrum while Hamza in active direct. Ayesha’s case was seen at the crossroads of the didactic direct and active direct spectrum as her pedagogies represented a mix of both. The cross-case analysis discusses the distinct and contrasting characteristics of the three cases. The study findings revealed that there was a disequilibrium between science teachers’ perceptions and practices regarding science pedagogies. Moreover, textbook remains the key driver of teaching and learning in science classrooms and didactic direct remains the predominant science pedagogy in practice. This multiple case study offers implications for both science practitioners and researchers. Science practitioners can use the science pedagogies spectrum to guide their practices while future research can employ Ausubel’s theoretical framework using the learning and instruction model in entirety to draw the interactions among both the types of science pedagogies used and the nature of learning happening within the classroom settings.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library