Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Tazeen Saeed Ali


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Background: Pakistan is one of the world’s most populous countries with a high growth rate. The overgrowth in population negatively affects the country’s socioeconomic progress in many aspects, like education, housing, employment, and health. Family Planning (FP) is the best way to reduce the fertility rate and control population overgrowth through contraception. FP positively impacts the mother's health and the productive results of every pregnancy.
Purpose: This study aims to explore the knowledge, experiences, and barriers associated with male involvement in family planning.
Method: A qualitative exploratory design was used with a purposive sampling technique to explore the perceptions of male community members. Considering eligibility criteria and the saturation point, 12 participants were recruited from Tehsil Lal Qila, district Dir (Lower), KPK, Pakistan. Open-ended questions were asked with the semi-structured guide. The data was analysed using content analysis.
Findings: Three themes have emerged from the interviews including (i) Understanding FP from a community men’s lens, (ii) Challenges encountered by community men in practicing FP, and (iii) Proposed strategies to enhance uptake of contraceptives among community men. The findings of the study discovered that the majority of the men who had knowledge regarding FP shared various benefits and disadvantages of using contraceptives. There were different barriers and challenges to the use of FP for instance, myths and misbeliefs about FP. Additionally, other barriers that prevented the use of FP were the unavailability and unaffordability of contraceptives, pressure from intimate partner and relatives and gender discrimination. The findings of the study led to some recommendations including the need for frequent awareness sessions at the community level to enhance the use of contraceptives and the availability of affordable and free-of-contraceptives and FP services to men. Moreover, including men as healthcare workers as an FP counsellor in initiatives related to maternal and child health and improving the communication and counselling skills of the existing FP workers through job trainings can promote the use of FP among men.
Conclusion: The collaborative efforts among various stakeholders are needed to promote the practice of FP among men. The finding of the study suggests diverse FP understanding among the community and highlighted barriers such as misbeliefs and limited access to FP services. To overcome these barriers, the opinions from the community recommends community-level awareness campaigns, accessible and affordable FP services, male involvement in healthcare initiatives (as family planning counsellors alongside female counsellors) and improved communication skills among healthcare providers working in FP programs. These measures can collectively promote the practice of FP among men and contribute to enhanced reproductive health outcomes.