Exploring the classroom practices of B.Ed.(Hons.) and B.Ed. (1.5 Years) with subject mastery teachers at the secondary level of federal government schools in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Meher Rizvi


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Classroom practices of teachers are the key factors, which determine students’ performance and learning. To ensure quality teaching, researchers keep teachers at the center because quality teachers can lead to quality teaching. Therefore rigorous teacher preparation programs are designed to prepare quality teachers. These teachers are known as the B.Ed. (Hons) teachers. However, teacher preparation programmes also offer the B.Ed. (1.5 years) so candidates to become a teacher. This B.Ed. programme contains 1 or 1.5 years of pre-service teacher preparation training. Whereas, the B.Ed. (Hons) teachers spend 4 years of pre-service teacher preparation training to become a teacher. This study aimed to explore the classroom practices of B.Ed. (Hons) teachers and B. Ed. (1.5 years) with subject mastery teachers. This study was conducted in the Federal Government schools at Karachi, Sindh.
A qualitative multiple case study design was used in this study. The data were collected from 2 teachers; first B.Ed. (Hons) teacher and second B.Ed. (1.5 years) with subject mastery. The purposeful sampling was used to select the participants. The data were collected in 2 phases. First, semi-structured observations with extensive field notes and secondly follow up semi-structured interviews. In total, 8 observations and 2 interviews were collected for this study. The data were analyzed by employing open coding and themes were developed.
The findings of this study show that B.Ed. (Hons) teachers engage students in different activities: cooperative learning, questioning, class discussion, peer assessment and individual task. Whereas, B.Ed. (1.5 year) with subject mastery teacher mainly engage students in questioning techniques. Asking lower order questions, general practice of assessment and feedback were the common practice of both teachers. It is suggested to researchers to extend this study and look at the practices of assessment and feedback.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library