Active learning in ECED classroom: A case study from community center Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Seema Lassi


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) plays a vital role in a child's physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development. Active learning is a pedagogical approach that engages students as active participants in the learning process by use of senses, materials manipulation, and interaction with peers. It also allows them to think about ideas, and events, which helps in building their understanding. Studies on ECED and active learning are abundant in formal settings. However, no study has explored ECED practices in the Community Center context. Therefore, this study investigates Early Childhood Education and Development teachers' perceptions and practices of active learning in the context of ECED classrooms in a community center in Karachi Pakistan. Two ECED teachers participated in the study. A qualitative case study was carried out that employed semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis as a tool for data collection. The three data sets were combined through thematic analysis to determine how teachers perceived and used active learning.
It was found that teachers understand the importance of ECED in a holistic way. Their perception of active learning was also practiced in their engagement and interaction with the students, between the students, and the materials. Active learning approaches in greeting time, small and large group times, through storytelling, poem singing, manipulation, and indoor games were utilized in the classroom. This increased engagement also helps in creative thinking, listening, and playing, and assists in the construction of ideas. The teachers were also acting as facilitators, caregivers, listeners, and motivators for the students. However, it was also found that the active learning pedagogy was constrained due to space issues in the classroom. It did not allow teachers to establish learning areas and efficiently apply practical work in the classroom regularly. Due to a lack of awareness of the teachers and management regarding the conceptual understanding of learning areas and materials in the classroom these findings have implications for teachers, management, and other stakeholders working in the ECED premises. This study will help the community center improve its teaching practice and learning spaces for the future.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library