Teachers' strategies of giving feedback in a lower secondary mathematics classroom (a case study)

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Formative assessment is an important part of the teaching learning process, aimed to improve teaching and learning. According to Lange (1999) and Taras (2005), for an assessment to be formative, it must be followed by feedback. This study was conducted, keeping in mind the importance of feedback in the process of formative assessment was conducted. This study was conducted in a private school in Karachi, Pakistan to find out how teachers use feedback in mathematics classrooms. It was an interpretive study, carried out through using interview, classroom observation and document review as data collection methods in the qualitative paradigm. The study reveals that the teachers perceived feedback, a process to give information to students as well as to get information about their own teaching. They perceived it as part of formative assessment. They used students' classroom performance, observation, written work and the tests as sources of formative assessment, to get information about the performance of students. The study also shows that teachers communicate feedback verbally as well as in written form. Teachers as well as the students found sharing of verbal feedback useful for student learning. Both of them liked written feedback with notebook work and tests, because it remained in record. However, students preferred verbal sharing of feedback in the classroom, because they found an opportunity to clarify their concepts by asking questions repeatedly and discussing them with each other. Furthermore, the study reveals that overcrowded classes, time, and mark and grade-oriented belief of students' and students' behavior in the classroom are some of the challenging factors that influence the feedback process. The study suggest to schools to increase the period duration and maintain the number of students in a classroom not more than thirty, manage programs for parents and student to change their grade- oriented belief, and conduct workshops for teachers. It also suggests that teachers bring a change in themselves in accordance with their changed role.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library