Towards a better tomorrow: Reflective practices of student teachers during practicums in two education colleges of Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Farid Panjwani


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Becoming a teacher is a process of acquiring skills such as technical and content knowledge, reflection, adaptability, teamwork, communication and lifelong learning, to name a few. Reflection, an essential skill, allows teachers to respond to situations and learn from their experiences. In 2013, USAID and HEC rolled out a new four-year teacher education programme. As highlighted by them, one of the programme’s unique features was its rigour and the exposure it would provide student teachers through practicums and reflective practice. Reflection, the lifeblood of teacher education, has not yet been extensively researched within Pakistan and led the author to investigate the phenomenon of reflection within two of the best teacher education colleges (as per public perception and institutional head’s comments) in Karachi, Pakistan. Using a comparative case study method, the author explored how reflection is taught and practised within the selected teacher education colleges during practicums. Along with interviews and FGDs of seventeen student teachers (n = 11) and teacher educators (n = 6), document analysis was carried out to respond to the research question. It was found that each participant had a unique understanding of reflection, and both colleges had contextually adapted to the teaching and practice of reflection as prescribed by the HEC and USAID-developed curriculum. The study identifies the best practices and areas of development within the processes in place from teacher educators' and student teachers’ perspectives. Sharing recommendations to further improve the process at policy and institutional levels for reflective practices, the study concludes by proposing prospective research areas.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library