Teachers` professional development for differentiated instructions in a digital classroom: A grounded theory study

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Meher Rizvi


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The existing professional development practices of teachers for digitally equipped classrooms have largely remained dubious. The digital age requires teachers to alter their instructional practices. Learners are technophiles, readily engaged and manipulate technology from an early age. It may not be justified to confine learning by using the traditional chalk-and-talk method of classroom instruction.
Differentiated instructions using technology facilitate teachers to allow multiple-level access of learners to the classroom concepts. This study comprehended teachers’ professional development to employ differentiated instruction in the digital classroom (during the physical and online mode of teaching) of a private O’-level school in Karachi. The constructivist grounded theory was employed to understand teachers’ perceptions and experiences in a digital online and technology-integrated physical classroom. Also, certain facilitating aspects and challenges were considered. Using purposive sampling data were collected from 12 secondary grade teachers via individual interviews (five male and seven female teachers). The findings presented a theory grounded in data depicting a learning trajectory of teachers’ professional journey from acquiring digital literacy and leading to digital fluency to meet students’ diverse needs using differentiated instructions in a digital classroom.
Research depicted a progressive role of school management with strengthening collaboration of IT experts and teachers’ mutual collaboration to cater learner-centred classrooms. Teachers also experienced impediments like varying technological knowledge, a centralized curriculum held teachers back from constructively utilising differentiation through content, process and product.
This research highlights the digital divide as a lacking of skill access. For further research, a case study method to compare different curricula, as well as a large-scale mixed method study is proposed for quantifiable results. A qualitative study to explore teacher-learner collaboration in knowledge construction and to probe learners’ perceptions may also be undertaken.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library