Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr, Salma Rattani


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Background: Approximately 17.3 million individuals across the globe lose their lives to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), with a majority of these cases occurring in low-to-middle-income countries. The incidence of cardiovascular disease in Pakistan is 918 cases per 100,000 individuals. Depression frequently impacts the health, expenses, and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among CVD patients at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and explore the influence of co-morbidities, marital status, age, and educational background on one's status, regarding depression.
Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, involving CVD patients admitted to the cardiology unit and those attending cardiac clinics.
Findings: The study included 234 participants, with a notable representation of individuals aged 60 to 70 years (34.2%), predominantly males (67.5%), and from the Sindh region (84.2%). Educational diversity was observed, with 29.9% holding graduate degrees and 17.5% holding master's degrees. Depression prevalence was 28 percent and was significantly higher among single participants. Moreover, the prevalence of depression showed a significant difference based on gender, with a higher prevalence among females (p=0.025). No significant differences were found regarding cardiovascular disease type, comorbid conditions, or residence location (p>0.05). However, a significance was observed in education level (p=0.002), indicating that primary education was a risk factor (OR=4.283, 95% CI: 1.434-12.798). Additionally, age showed varying associations, with individuals below 40 years of age having higher odds of depression (OR: 1.179, CI: 0.351-3.955, p:0.022).
Conclusion: The study explores depression among patients with cardiovascular disease in Karachi, Pakistan, emphasizing the need for tailored interventions for high-risk groups like singles and those with lower education levels. It underscores the importance of managing depression to improve patient well-being and clinical outcomes, thereby enhancing the understanding of the complex relationship between cardiovascular diseases and depression.

Included in

Nursing Commons