Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Khairulnissa Ajani

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Ms. Ambreen Gowani


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, are a leading cause of global mortality. The mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases is on the rise, with 80 % to 86 % of fatalities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Pakistan. Among NCDs, heart failure (HF) is a condition for which there is no cure, and patients rely on supportive treatments to maintain their quality of life. HF not only affects physical well-being but also has far-reaching consequences on the emotional, social, and cognitive aspects of life. In the context of Pakistan, where unique healthcare, sociocultural, and economic factors prevail, the assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is crucial for HF patients. This understanding is especially significant in Pakistan so that the relevant interventions can be tailored to address these specific aspects of HRQoL for HF patients in the country.
Purpose: This study aimed to explore and understand the in-depth meaning of HRQoL among HF patients in a tertiary care hospital, at AKUH, Karachi, Pakistan. By conducting in-depth interviews and engaging with the patients, this research aimed to uncover the shades of their daily struggles, aspirations, and adaptations.
Method: A qualitative interpretive design was used to study heart failure patients’ perceptions of their HRQoL. Through the Purposive sampling technique, 14 Heart Failure patients were selected from the outpatient department of AKUH. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted until meaningful information was achieved. A manual content analysis technique was followed to analyze the data.
Finding(s): The study's findings revealed two major themes. Theme one, "Heart Failure Patients' Perception about Health," highlighted participants valuing good health, the role of good health for maintenance, and the prioritization of well-being. Participants underscored the significance of health as a precious asset, emphasizing how HF had transformed their perception of good health and motivated them to take active measures to maintain it. The second theme revealed, "Attributes of HRQoL in Heart Failure," participants detailed how HF had reshaped their roles, necessitated dietary adaptation, influenced their social and family relationships, and led them on a journey of acceptance. This theme highlighted the diverse impact of HF, from reshaping daily responsibilities to adjusting to dietary restrictions and managing changes in social and family relationships.
Conclusion: This study provides insights into how HF patients in Karachi perceive and experience HRQoL. The findings emphasize the multifaceted nature of HRQoL, highlighting the importance of addressing physical, emotional, social, and cognitive aspects to improve the well-being of HF patients in Pakistan. This study contributed to a better understanding of the cultural context and individual perspectives on HRQoL, which can inform patient-centered care and interventions to enhance the quality of life for HF patients in Pakistan.