Using formative assessment classroom techniques (FACTs) to facilitate students` involvement in grade eight History classroom in a semi-private school of Karachi

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Dilshad Ashraf


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Formative assessment (FA) provides an opportunity for students to get involved in their classroom activities. Therefore, the study aimed to examine the usefulness of Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques (FACTs) for facilitating grade 8 students’ involvement in history classroom in a semi-private school in Karachi. The action research method within the qualitative paradigm was used for this study. The data were collected over a period of eight weeks through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, classroom observations, document analysis, reflective log, and discussion with a critical friend. At the reconnaissance stage, document analysis, a semi-structured Interview, and classroom observations of two history teachers were carried out to establish baseline data to identify students' involvement concerning existing classroom assessment practices and beyond. This data highlighted the lack of student involvement in classroom assessment activities which could be attributed to monotonous classroom assessment practices as well as to the greater emphasis on preparing students for summative assessment and a lack of constructive feedback from teachers and peers. At the action stage, two cycles were planned to respond to the research question. In the first cycle, three history lessons were assessed using three FACTs i.e. "No-hands-up", "Think-Pair-Share" and "Hot-Seat". while in the second cycle, two history lessons were assessed through "commit and toss" and "ideas spinner" strategies. The findings showed a considerable improvement in the students' attentiveness, willingness, and participation in individual and collaborative tasks. It was found that using these FACTs, students got equal chances to participate in classroom assessment activities and their collaboration and interaction enhance. The findings also revealed students' willingness and confidence in peer assessment and feedback. Moreover, post-actions stage findings show students’ appreciation for the FACTs, which worked as a motivator for increasing students' interest in history. Furthermore, they found FA advantageous and helpful for summative assessment. The findings of the study imply that teachers should be trained in classroom assessment practices as well as policymakers should strongly support formative assessment as a continuous assessment framework by giving some weightage to the summative assessment.

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