Exploring the impact of inclusive education in SIP on teachers’ classroom practices in govt schools in Silgan Valley, Ghizer District in Gilgit-Baltistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Drs Takbir Ali


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study aimed to explore the impact of mainstreaming inclusive education as part of the school improvement program (SIP) intervention in public sector schools in Silgan, a remote valley of Gilgit-Baltistan. The study also aimed at exploring the hurdles to the full implementation of the intervention at the grassroots level. The study was carried out using an exploratory case study method within the qualitative research paradigm. The participants of the study were selected through a purposive sampling technique involving four teachers, two headteachers, and a trainer. The data were collected through interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis, and the thematic analysis technique was used to analyze the data. The main findings of the data reveal that the intervention has impacted teachers’ attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs positively toward Children with disabilities (CWDs) and inclusive education. Teachers are eager to facilitate children with mild disabilities, however, they face difficulty in catering to children with severe disabilities, as they do not have the specialized knowledge and skills to do so. The short duration of the training for teachers at the cluster level was one of the factors that influenced the full implementation. Moreover, the shortage of teachers in the schools was also a big challenge for the implementation of the intervention. The study suggests that increasing the time duration, giving specialized training, and hiring extra HR as a cluster implementation team can help improve the intervention in other valleys.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library