Exploring perceptions and practices of Pakistan Studies teachers with regards to enhancing civic engagement among secondary grade students in Gilgit-Baltistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr Riaz Hussain


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


The goal of the National Curriculum of Pakistan Studies for secondary grades is to enhance civic attitudes, skills, and knowledge among students. These civic attitude, skills and knowledge can be developed among students through enhancing their civic engagement at school. Teachers of civic education or Pakistan Studies are more responsible to enhance students’ civic engagement at schools. I conducted this study to find out about the perceptions and practices of Pakistan Studies’ teachers regarding enhancing civic engagement among secondary grade students at public and private schools in Gilgit-Baltistan. Using a case study method, two teachers of Pakistan Studies each from public and private school systems were included in this study. Face to face and online interviews were conducted to get data for the study. Classroom observations of Pakistan Studies’ teachers were also conducted in each school. The documents, i.e., lesson plans, scheme of studies, school curriculum, past board exam papers of Pakistan Studies, school syllabus, National education policies and National curriculum of Pakistan Studies for secondary grade were also reviewed.
This study found that teachers perceived civic engagement of student important for creating useful citizenry. However, they spent most of the time in teaching historical events, which took place in Indian Sub-Continent before and after partition of Pakistan on 14th August 1947. Geography of Pakistan is also major part of Pakistan Studies Syllabus. Topics regarding civic attitudes, skills and knowledge were insufficient in written documents including in National Curriculum of Pakistan Studies for secondary grade 2006, school syllabus, lesson plans and scheme of works of teachers. Most importantly topics related to major civic attitudes i.e. democratic attitude, environmental attitude and attitude of tolerance towards diversity and pluralism were missing. The major civic skills i.e. problem solving, conflict resolution, and decision making skills were ignored in all documents as well. These attitudes, skills are considered some of the major civic attitudes and skills which should be inculcated among students of 21st century. Though teachers of both schooling systems try to enhance civic engagement of students through co-curricular activities including field tours, these activities varied from teacher to teacher. Document analysis suggested that content about civic engagement, civic attitudes, skills, were lacking in curriculum and school syllabus.
This study, based on its findings, has made suggestions to the teachers, curriculum developers and researchers in order to improve civic engagement of students in schools and help them grow into good citizens of the global world.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library