Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Fredrick Mtenzi

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Peter Kajoro


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


This study explored teachers’ questioning practices during teaching and learning of mathematics in form two: a case of a secondary school in Mwatate sub-county, Kenya. Despite the importance attached to questioning in causing class interactions and stimulating mathematical thinking, questioning may be underutilized during teaching and learning mathematics. Studies on teachers questioning practices seem to have also been neglected in the Kenyan context. This gap in mathematics pedagogy was the focus of the study. The study aimed at establishing the level of questions teachers ask during teaching and learning mathematics, the characteristic features of mathematics teachers’ questioning practices and the challenges teachers face in their questioning practices during teaching and learning mathematics. Teachers’ questioning practices were viewed using the lens of the revised taxonomy of Bloom and Vygotsky’s theory on the zone of proximal development. The study used a qualitative approach to obtain in-depth information. The sample comprised 3 form two mathematics teachers and 18 students from the same classes. Teacher interviews, non-participant observations, document analysis, and focus group discussions were the methods used to collect data which enabled triangulation of data to address the study’s objectives. Data were analysed qualitatively. The key findings of the study revealed that low-order questions dominate class questioning. Teacher questioning was mainly teacher-centred, characterized by the search for specific answer with minimal follow-ups, inadequate wait time, and minimal variation of questioning strategies. Girls’ showed a disliking to peer discussions. Language was outlined as a major challenge to questioning. The study recommended continuous exposure of teachers to questioning strategies during pre-service and in-service training and embrace of simple English in communicating mathematics and exposure of learners to mathematics language during class interactions. The findings were used to inform education stakeholders.