Enhancing theme-based integrated teaching approach of the early childhood development (ECD) curriculum in a non-governmental organisation school in Pakistan.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Harcharan Pardhan

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Ms. Attiya Hussain


Institute for Educational Development, Pakistan


Theme-based integrated approach is a developmentally appropriate practice that involves planning and coordinating teaching and learning experiences. It addresses all of the developmental domains of young children, and is based on the premise that children actively construct knowledge in the context of interactions with materials and people within the child's environment. Therefore, Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers are expected to create an environment that provides children with opportunities for active exploration. This satisfies children's curiosity and desire to make sense of the world around them. This study is set out to explore how teachers can be helped to enhance their classroom practice of theme-based integrated approach. The study adopts a qualitative design: action research approach, with two teachers teaching class two in an ECD section of a non-governmental organization school in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected over a period of three weeks, through semi-structured interviews, classroom observation. document observation and informal discussions. The data was gathered through close collaboration with two teachers. All the interviews and post conference discussions were audio recorded and transcribed. A reflective journal was also maintained where important points were noted including personal reflections and feelings. The study outcome found that, large class size remains a big challenge and a barrier for teachers to plan and organize theme-based integrated activities appropriately and effectively. In addition, the school's policy in planning of class activities and teachers' wanting subject content and pedagogical knowledge remains a hindrance to teachers' effectiveness in classroom practices. However, a collaborative approach whereby strategies such as; classroom observation and post conference feedback, co-planning, and self-reflection provides crucial support for teachers in implementing their professional learning in the classroom. The study recommends the school to establish a classroom based professional teacher learning programme, to enhance the teachers' classroom practice of theme-based as to integrated approach as well1 help them develop professionally

This document is available in the relevant AKU library