Developing young children's creative writing ability in English as a second language in a primary English medium school in Karachi, Pakistan.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Fauzia Shamim

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Iffat Farah


Institute for Educational Development, Pakistan


The purpose of the study was to improve teaching of creative writing for young8 children in English as a second language. For this purpose, action research was done in an English medium private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. Five students were involved as research participants and their teacher acted as my critical friend during the study. The main question asked was: How can I, as a teacher researcher, help children or class five to develop creative writing ability in English as a second language in an English medium primary school in Karachi, Pakistan? I conducted six cycles of action research. During each cycle I planned-acted observed-reflected (See figure 1, action research cycle, chapter two) and used this experience and my reflection to plan the next cycle of research. Data collection was done through interview, document analysis, observation and reflection. I learnt during pre-intervention phase that there was an issue of children s motivation; there was too much control over children's writing;[ insufficient use was made of stimulating materials and activities to motivate and support creativity]. I also learnt that no sense of audience was developed when writing, and there was no focus for writing of second drafts; as giving peer feedback was not practiced. I used a range of strategies to address these issues, for example. When pictures and other people's writings were used as a trigger children wrote with a lot of intent and enthusiasm. When music was played, children learnt the rhythm quickly and wrote poems easily. Children's imagination was supported through songs and pictures. When children's work was shared and published, they became motivated and confident. When a focus was provided for writing, the second draft the children's enthusiasm was sustained. The quality of writing also improved, because they were able to expand their ideas through answering questions asked by their peers. When children gave peer feedback they learnt to appreciate their peers' work and also their own. It was also found that if teachers care for children and treat them well, it motivates them to write creatively and also builds confidence in them. The research experience indicated that it was possible to teach creative writing to nonnative speaker children if the focus was on pedagogy as well as and on emotions of the children as both readers and writers.

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