Beyond prescribed curriculum: understanding primary school teachers` perspective of hidden curriculum in the context of Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study aims to understand the perspectives of primary school teachers about hidden curricula. The study was carried out in a private school in Karachi, Pakistan. To understand the teachers’ perspectives the case study design was used under the umbrella of the qualitative research methodology. The data were gathered through, interviews and document review. The findings of the study reveal the participants’ view that students learn from the teachers’ behaviors, practices, actions, and perspectives inside and outside the classroom too. They also see a strong connection between the school’s hidden curriculum and the classroom practices in a way that whatsoever happens at school has had an impact on the classroom practices. The study findings suggest that the teachers are aware of the promotion of the hidden curriculum in their classroom. However, they are not aware of the concept and term of the hidden curriculum in education which is the reason for their inability to name the practices that lead to students’ learning outside the planned or explicit learning. To this end, a thorough continuous professional education course is recommended for the teachers to learn about the curriculum and the hidden curriculum. In this course, they should also learn and practice reflection on their behaviors, actions, words, and classroom practices to discern how these contribute to the schools’ hidden curriculum. Also, it is important for the other school staff to be aware of the hidden curriculum and to review the rules, displays, and school environment to promote positive values and practices in students through the hidden curriculum.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library