Exploring the factors associated with the quality of pedagogical practices of elementary school science teachers across Pakistan: A secondary analysis

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


School science education provides a strong foundation for developing students’ scientific knowledge and high order thinking needed for practical life. Empirical evidence highlights the importance of providing quality learning experiences to school students for developing scientifically and technologically literate citizens of 21st century. That said, evidence related to the factors which contribute to engaged pedagogical practices in sciences needs to be augmented. The current study aimed to address this gap by developing a statistical model and using data collected as part of HEC-NRPU funded nation-wide study explored the factors which contribute to the quality of pedagogical practices of elementary science classrooms across Pakistan. The obtained data comprised structured classroom observations and relevant demographic information of elementary school science teachers (n=302) recruited from public (n= 161) and private (n=141) schools across six regions of Pakistan. The univariate and bivariate analysis were used to explore initial pattern followed by multivariate modelling to investigate factors which contribute to the quality of pedagogical practices. Initial finding revealed weak (i.e., reading from the book and translating the text; predominant teacher talk, hardly any example of collaborative learning) quality of pedagogical practices in elementary science classrooms. The overall Multiple Regression Modeling (MRM) demonstrated three contributing factors (class size, active instructional time, and teacher gender). The MRM model for public schools revealed that those teachers who were teaching in co-education classrooms; spend more time for active instructions and had smaller class size managed to provide more participatory experiences to students. On the other hand, in private schools, those classrooms where female teachers were teaching science and spending more time for active instructions demonstrated more engaging practices. The finding provides recommendations for policy makers, teacher education institutes and schools in the context of professional development of teachers. The study also generates opportunities for further research in science education.

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