Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Digital Journalism (MADJ)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Njoki Chege

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Hesbon Hansen Owilla


Graduate School of Media and Communications


The advent of digital media has seen legacy news organisations record a decline in revenue as audiences shifted online, where access to information was relatively cheaper and more convenient. Newspaper circulation plummeted, and so did their revenue as advertisers followed the audiences online, where the media were abundant and could pay less. Media houses switched focus to digital after traditional models were disrupted, the intention being to use digital to plug the losses in legacy platforms. Within this tenet, this study sought to determine the lessons learned by legacy media in Kenya and identify the critical success factors in the marketing of content on the digital platform. The objectives were to establish the lessons learned in the monetisation of digital content, determine the critical success factors in the monetization of content by legacy media on the digital platform, and determine the challenges facing legacy media in Kenya in their efforts to monetize content on digital platforms. The disruption of innovation theory and media economics formed the theoretical framework. The researcher adopted a qualitative research approach and an exploratory research design. In-depth interviews were used to generate data. The study sample size was achieved through purposive sampling technique. Data was analysed through thematic statistical tools. The findings of the study established that the media house has drawn important lessons on the need for continuous improvement of content and that delivery platforms must be set properly. Further, the findings established that the success factors in monetisation on the digital platform are content, technology, and the market economy. In addition, the study determined that Nation Media Group (NMG) is experiencing an uphill task in convincing readers to pay for content on a platform where they used to access it freely. The study concluded that paywalls and consumer paid models can only be successful if the media houses invest in quality content, understand their audiences, and target them through optimal use of technologies available. The researcher recommends that for media to succeed in monetising content on the digital platform, they must ensure that they offer audiences quality and exclusive content through platforms that have the best user experience. Based on the findings, the researcher suggests further investigation on what the media can do to keep their premium content exclusive.