Developing understanding of a writing frame for explanation in science writing

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


My study emerged from the backgrounds of the present teaching and learning practices in explanatory writing in Science subjects. It has been observed that in our current education system, science writing is used for assessment purpose, and is mostly viewed as recording and collecting of factual information. The students' motivation towards science writing is also very low, as it is a mechanical process of writing memorized facts. However, if science writing is further extended to be more interactive, involving student's critical thinking and reasoning skills, then it has potential for learning. The students will find writing tasks much more enjoyable and this will increase their overall learning of the science concepts. The student's attempt of writing for explanation should be supported with strategies, which facilitate students to construct their own explanations during writing. Writing frame is one such strategy and provides students a skeleton, with beginning sentences and connectives to support explanatory writing. Throughout my study, I aimed to provide students with explanations in the form of causal relationships and predictions during teaching and writing of science concepts. During this time, my own understanding of developing writing frames evolved tremendously, which is reflected in my research finding. My research findings showed that the writing process for explanation cannot take place in isolation. Writing for explanation requires a conceptual understanding of the content, innovative teaching strategies, thinking and reasoning skills, a rich learning environment, and the presence of a teacher as a facilitator. I also found that students' misconception regarding science concepts were also highlighted. Another important finding was that writing frames raised motivation towards explanatory writing in Science. However, there were a few factors which impeded my research study. First, my inadequate understanding of writing frame was an impeding. Second, the low proficiency in English language was a barrier for the students in expressing their understanding of science ideas. Finally, there were also some supporting factor which enabled me to do my research that is my own determination and persistence throughout the study and support from the language faculty. The findings from the study has various implications like writing in Science requires an interdisciplinary approach. Finally, recommendations have been drawn based on the findings of the study.

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