Teachers' instructional practices in relation to their expectations from girls and boys in a co-education primary school in Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Education For All's (EFA) vision is to enroll and retain all girls and boys in schools. It is also about ensuring that girls and boys of all age develop their full potential through quality education. However, during the last two decades, despite the enormous work done by the government and donor agencies in Pakistan, a large number of students, especially girls, are still out of school. Gender disparities exist in access, enrolment, and completion at all levels of education. There are many socio-economic and cultural factors, along with the micro processes of schools and classrooms, behind this issue. The focus of the study was to explore the instructional practices of teachers in relation to their expectations of girls and boys students. This study was conducted through a qualitative case study, which was explorative in nature. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, pre- and post-observation discussions and analysis of instructional materials (text, illustrations and displays) using gender analysis framework. Two major conclusions emerged from the study; it was found that both the teachers had different expectations of girls and boys, those expectations were rooted in their own personal experiences. Moreover, official curriculum (text and illustrations) and the hidden curriculum (pedagogies teacher used) didn't favor girls in the classrooms. Adding to these, teachers did not recognize the subtle messages, which students were getting from the textbooks and their deliveries. Teachers' varied expectations from girls and boys and the socialization of different gender roles and the use of a gender-biased hidden curriculum lead to an inequitable education opportunities for boys and girls in both the classrooms. Findings of the study have serious implications for teachers, teacher educators, and policy makers. Unless teachers are made aware of the gender role socialization and the biased messages which they send to students everyday, and until teachers are provided with the methods and resources necessary for eliminating gender-bias in the classrooms, girls will continue receiving an inequitable education. This will have a serious implication for their access and stay at schools

This document is available in the relevant AKU library