Role of headteachers in addressing the challenges of initiating digital literacy skills in district Hunza, Gilgit-Baltistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Digital technologies are not only used in schools in the urban areas, but they are also found increasingly relevant in educational institutions in the mountainous and marginalized contexts in Pakistan. Television, tape recorder and fixed-line telephone are the traditional technological resources used in schools. Modern digital technologies like computers, laptops, tablets, android mobile, the internet and other software have not only influenced the adoption of technology in teaching-learning but have also guided students and teachers to move towards digitalization. The students in urban schools are more engaged with technology in and outside the schools which leads to the national digital divide in the country.
However, school leadership in rural areas faces several challenges in introducing digital technologies in teaching-learning activities. This study explored the role of headteachers in addressing the challenges of digital literacy skills (DLS) in two private secondary schools in Hunza, Gilgit-Baltistan. Using the case study method, headteachers and learning technology facilitators (LTF) were selected purposefully to participate in the study. Data was collected by using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Several barriers were identified that hindered digital literacy (DL) integration in schools. These barriers included teachers’ attitude towards technology, low bandwidth of internet, load shedding, harsh weather in winters and lack of DLS training opportunities for teachers. However, the findings revealed that headteachers as digital leaders use different strategies to address the challenges that hamper the initiation of DLS in schools. They customize the challenges by using several strategies like, modeling and promoting technology integration in administration, motivating teachers towards the use of technology, creating opportunities for learning DLS, effective monitoring of DL processes, managing technological resources, engaging teachers in planning and involving parents in schools as change partners.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library