Exploring how head teachers monitor teaching and learning: A case of a Secondary School in Trans-Nzoia West District in Kenya

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Simon Karuku

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Mweru Mwingi


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


The study sought to explore the role of head teachers (HTs) in monitoring teaching and learning (MTL) in secondary schools in Kenya, with specific reference to a secondary school in Trans-Nzoia County. The study adopted a case study design where participants were selected through purposive sampling technique. Data collection was through the use of interviews, focus group discussion (FGD) and document analysis. Collected data was sorted, coded and analysed using Hyper Research 3.5.2 qualitative data analysis software. Study findings were analysed and discussed. Findings revealed that HTs employ use of teachers’ professional documents, monitoring by walking around (MBWA), delegating to other members of the school management, classroom observations, and teacher’s lesson attendance register to monitor teaching and learning. Further, the study established that HTs improve monitoring of teaching and learning through guiding and counseling the teachers, availing teaching and learning resources to the teachers, taking action on teachers who violate professional ethics, offering professional support to teachers for capacity building and mentoring the teachers. Finally, according to the findings, suspicion from the teachers, lack of time, absenteeism by the teachers, students’ attitude and loss of teaching- learning resources were the major challenges that the HT faced during monitoring of teaching and learning in the school. Based on the findings, it was concluded that HTs carry out MTL by the teachers for accountability to the stakeholders and the larger community. In addition, monitoring teaching and learning was for both school and teacher improvement. The study recommended that training workshops for teachers should be scheduled for holidays so as to prevent interference with the monitoring of teaching and learning. In addition, school management teams led by the HT school should carry out MTL cautiously and with a degree of fairness so that the teachers don’t feel intimidated.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library