Instructional supervision: an exploratory study of teachers’ and school leaders’ perceptions of effective instructional supervision

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Mweru Mwingi

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Zeenat Sharif


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


This study sought to explore teachers’ and school leaders’ perceptions of elements of effective instructional supervision based on constructs that were identified in literature. The study was in response to the reported ability of instructional supervision to improve the quality of learning as demanded by stakeholders in education. In addition, there was limited knowledge on what teachers and school leaders perceive as effective instructional supervision despite the known relationship between perception and practice. The study was conducted through a cross-sectional fixed design using a survey approach. Data were collected from teachers and leaders in the six selected private schools using a self administered survey questionnaire. Thereafter, the collected data were analyzed descriptively using percentages, means, standard deviations, and inferentially using Mann-Whitney non-parametric analysis for independent samples at 95% confidence level (α = 0.05). The study established that teachers and school leaders perceived “both teachers and supervisors engage in reflective practice” as the most important perceived element of effective instructional supervision. The perception was higher among teachers and school leaders with high educational qualification and working experience compared to those with less working experience and educational qualification. Teachers and school leaders were found to differ in their perception of three of the six elements of effective instructional supervision; “teachers control over the products of supervision”; “continuity in the supervisory process over time” and “provision of non-judgemental observational data to teachers by supervisors” The study concludes that teachers and school leaders view instructional supervision as effective if it incorporates promotes reflective practice. Working experience and educational qualification influence how teachers and school leaders perceive instructional supervision. Teachers and school leaders, to some extent differ in how they view effective instructional supervision. The study recommends that supervisory practice should incorporate the six elements, respond to needs of individual teachers and that schools support professional development of both the teachers and the supervisors.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library