A document analysis of the implementation of competency-based curriculum: investigating the role of head teachers in Kenya.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Anil Khamis

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Fortidas.R. Bakuza


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


Primary education is basic education level in Kenya and has faced various reforms, UPE, FPE and the Competency-Based Curriculum. The study was carried on document analysis on CBC implementation; to investigate the roles of headteachers. The headteacher being the leader at the school level, the study sought to know the considerations for them, lessons learned from the initial experiences of the reform implementation, and the best practices that ought to be developed to improve implementation at the school level. The study investigated the reform implementation, the curriculum framework, and the guidelines availed for the headteachers in the improvement of schooling concerning the reform. The methodology used to carry out the study was a qualitative approach in document analysis, in the case study design in the Kenyan context. This method was appropriate as the researcher could not dish out questionnaires or other tools to headteachers for quantitative approach, rather, managed to carry out the study irrespective of the pandemic of Covid 19, that restricted movement and led to the closure of schools. The findings indicate that the headteachers are considered as teachers and planning mainly focus on teachers as implementers, the documents show minimal considerations for the headteachers in terms of guidelines and orientation as well as policy designs in respect to the leaders in the school. For effective implementation of CBC, its objectives and intentions need to be conceptualized. This statement has been underscored in the documents in the training programs and processes for the school leaders. The findings indicate the expected roles of the headteachers, and assumptions are made that they remain. A recommendation was made that documents need to be revised after the introduction of the reform, and handbooks to be availed to supplement and cater for new expectations. Policies are important, however need updating frequently. The key areas focused on are Competency-Based Curriculum, Reforms, Policies, Headteacher, and Implementation.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library