Exploring quality classroom questioning as practiced by teachers in the teaching and learning process: a case of a secondary school in Siaya, Kenya.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)

First Supervisor/Advisor

Dr. Tage Biswalo

Second Supervisor/Advisor

Joachim Tamba


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


Classroom questioning as one of the practices and tools at a teacher’s disposal in the teaching and learning process can be considered the strongest tool to teach students how to think. The purpose of this study is to explore quality classroom questioning practices manifested in the teaching and learning process in a form four class. The study used the Bloom’s taxonomy and the Information Processing model as theoretical framework for the study. The study was based on interpretivist paradigm that is exploratory in nature taking a qualitative approach. The study involved use of classroom observation, semi-structured interviews involving four teachers and seven learners, and document analysis on departmental minutes, schemes of work, lesson observation forms and lesson plans to collect data. It was found out that teachers’ skills in question preparation include purposing questions, factoring previous content, flexibility in questioning, multiple sourcing and determining cognitive level of questions. In question presentation the skills include capturing learner attention, sequencing questions and making special considerations. In response and processing feedback, skills manifested include establishing wait time, learner accountability and reflections on questioning. In establishing question-answer congruence, teachers practice reverting back to learners, elaborating on learner answers and ensuring psychological security. The context dependent factors that shape questioning were found to include examinations, school policies, national policies and learners’ state of mind. The study came up with a number of recommendations for action and for further research. The Teacher Colleges should expose teacher trainees to wide theoretical and practical training on the use of quality questioning. The Teacher Training Colleges should recruit professional development providers with extensive knowledge on classroom questioning, to train their instructors on the same. Education Quality Assurers to incorporate the aspects of question preparation, question presentation and feedback processing in the classroom observation tools and gives feedback after supervision to help teachers polish their questioning. Schools administrations should recognize the integral connections between the contextual factors in the practicing of classroom questioning. Teachers should collaborate with colleagues in joint evaluation of their questioning practices. Further research is also recommended on Exploring the relationship between contextual factors and question presentation practices.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library