Knowledge and practices among nurses regarding patients' care following cardiac catherization in a tertiary care hosptial Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality, globally. Developing countries contribute a greater share to the global burden of CVDs. Nurses are the largest body of health care professionals who attempt to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases. Being at the patient's bedside round the clock, a nurse is in the best position to closely monitor and initiate the resuscitation process if any post procedural complication is observed. Hence, a competent nurse, with sound knowledge and practical expertise, is a key person for any health care organization. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the gaps in knowledge and practices among nurses regarding patient care, following diagnostic / therapeutic cardiac catheterization, at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This study also attempted to identify the gaps in nursing knowledge and practices, in order to improve the quality of nursing care and patient outcomes. Methodology: This study employed a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study design to answer the research questions. A total of 70 registered nurses were recruited, through universal / total population sampling from various departments of a tertiary care philanthropic organization, which included, Coronary Care Unit (CCU), General Male Ward (GMW), General Female Ward (GFW), Male High Dependency Unit (MHDU), female high dependency unit (FHDU), and Day Care Unit (DCU). The data were collected using two instruments: Knowledge was assessed through a questionnaire, which was based on 50 multiple choice questions, whereas, to assess the practices, an observational checklist was utilized by the data collectors, which comprised 20 components.Each participant was observed thrice, on three consecutive days. Findings: The findings revealed that the majority of the nurses, 54.3%, had adequate knowledge scores, 40% nurses had inadequate knowledge scores, and only 5.7% nurses had excellent knowledge scores. Moreover, 87.1% nurses were observed as carrying out unsatisfactory practices, whereas, only 12.9% nurses were found carrying out satisfactory practices. However, the practices of nurses working in the CCU were relatively satisfactory, as compared to all the other departments. Conclusion: The study results have led to some recommendations, which include: periodic competency based orientations, increased in-service continuous sessions, and simulation based trainings for nurses, to provide better patient care. Furthermore, quality assurance and quality education in nursing institutions, through qualified faculty, are also recommended. Moreover, since variation in the practices was observed in each of the department, therefore, there is a need for further research, to assess nurses' attitudes through a qualitative approach and to develop and implement a standard post-cardiac catheterization care protocol.

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