Self-care behavior and its associated factors among hypertensive patients in Buraidah, Al Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Hypertension is one of the leading causes of premature death, and it is known as the silent killer. Maintaining Blood Pressure (BP) levels at less than 140/90 mmHg has been associated with reduction in its secondary complications. In addition to pharmacological management, adherence to desired Self-Care Behaviour (SCB) is an important strategy for controlling BP. Study Aim: This study aimed to identify the hypertensive patients' level of awareness, their level of SCBs, and any association between the identified levels of SCB with their demographic characteristics. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional analytical study, conducted in a tertiary care cardiac center, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The sample size of this study was 419 participants, who were recruited using non-probability sampling. The 1-1- SCALE tool was used to assess the level of adherence to self-care behaviours. Results: In general, the participants' awareness about hypertension was low; only 43 % of them reported the monitoring of their BP. The participants reported 100 % abstinence from alcohol, while 89% of them adhered to their medication regimen and 76% refrained from smoking. The prevalence of physical activity, weight management, and healthy diet was poor and measured 23%, 19%, and 18%, respectively. Females and older participants were more likely to be abstinent from smoking. Likewise, retired-male patients had the highest probability of adherence to the medication regimen. On the other hand. the probability of weight management was high among housewives. BP monitoring had a significant association with adherence to weight management, healthy diet, and physical activity. Adherence to healthy diet was also associated with the level of education. Conclusion: The study findings provided key information about the hypertensive patients' awareness of their disease, and their level of self-care behaviour. Considering the role of education and the association of BP monitoring with other SCBs, there is an urgent need to establish health education programs for the hypertensive patients in the KSA. These programs could enhance the hypertensive patients' awareness about their disease and may also improve their adherence to selfcare activities. The obtained information can help design context specific interventional studies for improving SCB among hypertensive patients.

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