Feasibility of offering a positive learning environment through positive disciplining module for public school teachers: a cluster randomized trial in Hyderabad, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


In Pakistan, a key public health concern is corporal punishment in schools. Globally, for reducing corporal punishment, teachers training modules are reported as being effective in the schools. In Pakistan, such social health concerns are prevalent and there is a scarcity of literature on the usefulness of teacher education interventions to decrease corporal punishment. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Positive Learning Environment through Positive Disciplining (PLEPD) module for public school teachers.The secondary aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the PLEPD module in improving the self-efficacy score and the knowledge and attitude towards corporal punishment, and in reducing depression among public school teachers. Methods: This research study was conducted on 60 public school teachers in Hyderabad, Pakistan, and a Cluster Randomized Trail (CRT) was used to categorize two settings each in the control group and intervention group. In the control group 29 teachers and in the intervention group 31 teachers participated in the study. All the teachers were provided the routine training and, additionally, the educational program, of four hours per day, was offered as an intervention, for four days, a total of 16 hours to the intervention group. The scores (General Self Efficacy (GSE), Beck Depression Inventory-11 (BDT-I1), and knowledge and attitude) of teachers were assessed before, immediately after, and at three months' interval after the intervention i.e., pretest, post-test I, and post-test II respectively. Results: The results of the study showed the high participation 96.8% rate, and the successful completion of the module by the participants which confirms the feasibility of the PLEPD vi module. Furthermore, it was found that the intervention was useful in improving the median scores of teachers' self-efficacy, and knowledge and attitude towards corporal punishment. However, there was no significant difference found in the depression among the teachers after the intervention. In the mean scores for GSE, BDI-II, and knowledge and attitude, an insignificant difference (p= >0.05) was found within each group and between the control and intervention group. Conclusion: The findings of the study recommend that the module on positive disciplining for teachers needs to be provided on a continuous basis to reduce corporal punishment and to improve student-teacher relationship. The present study identified the need for further studies to be conducted in other public schools, in order to evaluate the impact of PLEPD module in different settings.

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