Role of public private partnership in the provisin of safe drinking water in Gilgit : a qualitative exploratory study

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Policy & Management (MSc Health Policy & Mgmt)


Community Health Sciences


For delivering public goods and services Public—private partnerships (PPPs) are emerging as governing model and they have existed since Roman Empire. People look ahead to have a better quality in infrastructure, stipulation of public services efficiently and best use of public money .. Concerning about services, water is central to human life, reducing poverty and for economic gains. For many governments the water service delivery is a challenge due to budget constraints and absence of required framework for water supply. Furthermore increase in urbanization and population in developing countries lead to increase in the gap between demand and supply of services. Taking into account all this, PPP is a viable option to satisfy these expectations and it has gained significance both in developed and developing countries. Nevertheless, PPPs are not a 'miracle' to solve a problem. Method: This study employed qualitative exploratory research design and was conducted from July- September 2016. The study was conducted in three purposively selected settings namely Local and Rural Development Department Gilgit (LG & RD), Aga Khan Planning and Building Service Gilgit (AKPBS) and project implementation site Altit Hunza. Similarly, the participants for Key Informant Interviews (Klls) and Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) were also purposively selected from these settings. The data was collected through 07 face-to-face semi- structured Key Informant Interviews from executives and from frontline managers. Additionally, two Focus Group Discussions were also conducted with end users, one from females above 18 years and one from males above 18 years and this group also included water and sanitation committee members. Transcription of verbatim notes was prepared to generate descriptive notes. Manifest and latent analysis was done. Text giving same meaning was divided in to meaning units which was further condensed to form codes. Codes giving same meaning or idea were identified as themes which helped in interpreting the latent part of content analysis. Results: The participants of both Kils and FGDs considered PPP as a viable option to provide water services however, one participant from private sector was uncertain about the appropriateness of PPP in water sector in Gilgit — Baltistan. The participants identified enabling condition and factors that obstruct PPP. The enabling factors identified were support from government, political support, expertise of private sector and most importantly involvement of community. The impediments of PPP identified were lack of PPP act and absence of legal and regulatory framework. Moreover, the study also identified several challenges and gaps in current water PPP models such as lack of well define legal and regulatory mechanism, absence of well define accountability mechanism, issues of Operation and Maintenance (0 & M) fund, unequal water distribution and water leakages are some of the areas that need improvement. Conclusion: It is concluded from the study that, despite absence of PPP act and lack of legal and regulatory framework water PPP projects are successful in providing water to 52 villages of Gilgit Baltistan. It was explored from the study that the current model adopted for water provision is Public Private and Community Partnership, since communities have been involved and their involvement has proved to be a great support in successful implementation of water supply schemes. The strong support from political leaders and financial support from public, and technical and managerial expertise of AKPBSP has proved to be effective in delivery of water services. Moreover, Safe drinking water provision coupled with health and hygiene awareness sessions have proved valuable in reducing the diarrheal incidences in project areas.

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