Factors associated with pain and its management after cardiac surgery in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Pain is the subjective feeling of an individual, which affects the overall recovery of the patients after cardiac surgery. Post-operative pain has many a times been an inadequately managed symptom of cardiac surgery. There are many factors that can either hinder or facilitate pain management, including patients' beliefs, cultural values, physiological features, hospital policies, and the healthcare providers' knowledge and beliefs. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to identify factors associated with postoperative pain and its management, after cardiac surgery, among patients in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: A quantitative correlational study design was employed to attain the study purpose. Data was collected from 136 adult cardiac surgery patients admitted in the Cardiothoracic Surgery (CTS) Department, AKUH. A self-developed questionnaire tool was used to gather information from patients. Data was then analyzed on SPSS version 19. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis, and Spearman tests were applied to find the associations between the pain levels and of the independent variables. Results: The mean pain scores of the first, second, and third post-operative days were found to be 2.98, 2.96, and 2.98, respectively. The findings also showed thatBody Mass Index (BMI), and the types of surgery were the significantly associated clinical features with post-operative pain. Patients' beliefs regarding drug dependency, fear of adverse effects, and post-operative physical activities also had a relationship with the pain. Furthermore, the nurses' education level and reluctance in medication administration due to fear of adverse effects were found to be significant too. Conclusion: The study identified some of the important factors that were associated with post-operative pain. The results suggest the need for the enhancement of patients' education on drug dependency, adverse effects, and physical activity, before the cardiac surgery. The nurses should be educated on pain management keeping the patients' culture and other perceptions of pain in mind.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library