Factors associated with tobacoo use among undergraduate university students (18-25 years) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


The tobacco epidemic is among the leading public health issues that the world has been constantly facing. In Pakistan, the prevalence of tobacco use is very high, and it is common in every age group. Moreover, it is alarming that the universities in Pakistan are increasingly becoming the hub of tobacco use. The aim of this study was to identify the contributing factors which lead to tobacco use among undergraduate university students (18-25 years) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. This study also aimed to identify the association between the contributing factors and tobacco use. A retrospective case-control study was carried out on 560 (280 Cases and 280 Controls) undergraduate students in three universities of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Data was collected through a self-filled structured questionnaire, which was analyzed using descriptive and inferential (odd ratio) statistics, via SPSS version 19. The data revealed that tobacco use is significantly associated with brothers (OR: 1.81), and other family members (father in law, grandfather, nephew, relatives) (OR: 3.62) who are addicted to tobacco use. Tobacco using friends (OR: 15.39), use of tobacco in university (OR: 4.37), hostel (OR: 3.79), and public places (OR: 1.49) are also significantly associated with tobacco use. Staying in social gatherings (OR: 2.23) where people use tobacco and offer it to others (OR: 7.43) is also linked with tobacco use. Getting impressed by media promotion advertisements ((OR: 1.81), and beliefs about the beneficial effects of tobacco use (OR: 2.19) are also significantly related with tobacco use. Furthermore, having personal problems (OR: 1.78), physical / medical diseases (OR: 1.78), and financial problems (OR: 1.57) were also found significantly associated with tobacco use. The present study concluded that there are many factors like tobacco using family members, peer pressure for tobacco use, social gatherings where tobacco is used and offered freely, and promotion of tobacco by media, etc., are positively associated with tobacco use among undergraduate university students (18-25 years) in KP, Pakistan. The findings of this study may add further to the existing knowledge and information on this issue. vii

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