Validation of urdu version of wagnild and young's long and short resilience scale among married women of age 20 to 40 years living in urban squarter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Epidemiology & Biostatistics (MSc Epidemiology & Biostats)


Community Health Sciences


Resilience is the core of promoting positive mental health. This concept widely studied in developed countries and less in developing countries. Further, no valid instrument exists in South Asia to assess resilience. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Urdu version of Wagnild and Young's long and short Resilience Scale among married women of age 20 to 40 living in selected urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Malir and Shah Faisal Town. Resilience Scale long and short was validated against the scales of depression, anxiety and life satisfaction among married women. The original English version of RS was translated into Urdu and the standard and rigorous procedure of backtranslation was followed to ensure conformity across language versions. This process was repeated untill the author of the scale and the current research team closely matched the original and back-translated versions. Six community health workers received four training sessions by the Principle Investigator for questionnaire administration. We selected 636 community women through systematic sampling. All the above questionnaires except for the basic demographic information was reassessed after a one month period to see the test-retest reliability. Half of the selected participants were randomly selected for reliability (319). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows in order to test validity and reliability for the scale. Correlation coefficient, internal consistency, Crohnbach alpha was computed for both long (RS) and short scales (RS-14). Results: Mean age of the participants were 30.08 years (SD = 5.7). The majority were of Urdu origin (90.1%) and half of the women were literate up to secondary level (50.2%) and only 13.4 % didn't have any formal education. Both the RS and RS-14 were found to have moderate negative correlation with the depression and anxiety, and moderate positive significant correlation with life satisfaction. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were found 0.54 and 0.49 respectively. The Cronbach's alpha for both RS and RS-14 were found 0.74 and 0.76 respectively. Furthermore, the concurrent correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 of the first and second visits were 0.729 and 0.813, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the Urdu version of RS has reasonable psychometric properties with moderate degrees of concurrent and construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in all analyses i.e internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. The tool can therefore, serve as a feasible option for measuring resilience in the community and the two versions can be used interchangeably.

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