Self-care behaviors and their determining factors among heart falilure patients in Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Heart Failure (HF) is a progressively worsening clinical syndrome associated with poor quality of life and higher hospital readmissions. Therefore, self-care behaviors in heart failure are considered equally important to its pharmacological management. Literature indicates that the level of self-care varies among different culture. However, little is known about the self-care behaviors and its predictors among HF patients in the developing countries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the level of Self care behaviors (SCB) and its associated factors among HF patients in Pakistan. The study was conducted using a sequential mixed method approach. The SCB of 230 heart failure patients were assessed using Euoropean Heart Failure Sel care behavior scale (EHFScBS) via a cross sectional survey. Moreover, six patients were interviewed to explore the factors affecting their SCB. The mean score of the EHFSCB was 29.30. Among the specific SCB, following medication regimen was the highest (89%) whereas, weight monitoring was the lowest (12%) adhered SCB. In multivariate Analysis education, income and chronicity of the HF diagnosis were positively associated with better SCB (P<0.005). Analyses of the qualitative data showed patients' financial status, family support, health education and support of the health care system as important predictors of SCB. The overall level of the self-care was found low. The convergence of the quantitative and qualitative findings reveled that patients 'financial status, education and experience of the illness are the key determinants of SCB among HF patients in Pakistan. Hence, this study has implications for the health care providers, policy makers and donors to establish HF management programs for the patients in our culture.

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