Women's experiences in their early post menopausal period in the Pakistani context

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MScN)


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


In general, women's life expectancy has increased, but their quality of life is questionable. All women, who reach midlife, experience menopause, however, it is difficult to determine its meaning for and perception by individuals. Literature reveals that menopause experience may be influenced ethnic differences, socio-cultural norms, geographical environment, and personal knowledge. It affects women's experience in various ways. This exploratory qualitative descriptive study aimed at exploring the experiences of women related to menopause in the Pakistani context. The study was conducted at the Pakistan Naval Ship Shifa hospital, employing the purposive sampling technique; the study sample consisted of ten (10) women who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through semi structured face to face interviews using an interview guide. The interviews were audiotape. Data analysis was done simultaneously with data collection. Qualitative analysis was done using the manual method. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis (manifest and latent) was utilized as the analytical method to identify emerging categories and themes. Lincoln and Cuba's framework of trustworthiness was utilized to establish rigor in the study. Three themes emerged from the data: a) feeling of freedom and autonomy, b) feeling of Discomfort, Loss, and Helplessness, c) struggling to cope and manage. The overall findings revealed that the participants, perceived menopause as a normal and natural phenomenon, and had a positive attitude towards it. They had both positive and negative experiences related to menopause; however their negative experiences were intensified by lack of knowledge and awareness about menopause and, also, by lack of support from family members and spouses. This study has implications for health care providers, particularly nurses working in various health care settings, for provision of accurate information, education, support, and counseling to the women, and their family members, regarding menopause and management of challenges of menopause, to improve their quality of life.

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