Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


During 1950-90, the nonmetro civilian labor force declined except during the 1970’s. In the 1970’s, nonmetro manufacturing increased substantially, and the baby boom generation entered the labor force. By contrast, the retail/wholesale labor force increased in every decade except for the 1980’s. Several factors could have contributed to the decline in the retail/wholesale labor force, including population decline and the effects of large retail establishments.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Rural Development Perspectives