Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Paediatric Surgery


Background: The Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) is a multicenter, multicountry study conducted in Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were to characterize disease incidence among patients with enteric fever. We report the burden of enteric fever at selected sites of Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: During September 2016 to September 2019, prospective surveillance was conducted at inpatient, outpatient, surgical departments, and laboratory networks of Aga Khan University Hospital, Kharadar General Hospital, and surgery units of National Institute of Child Health and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre. Socio-demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from all suspected or confirmed enteric fever cases.
Results: Overall, 22% (2230/10 094) of patients enrolled were culture-positive for enteric fever. 94% (2093/2230) of isolates were Salmonella Typhi and 6% (137/2230) were S. Paratyphi. 15% of isolates multi-drug resistant (MDR) to first-line antibiotics and 60% were extensively drug-resistant (XDR), resistant to first-line antibiotics, fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporin.
Conclusion: Enteric fever cases have increased during the last 3 years with large proportion of drug resistant S. Typhi cases. However, the burden of paratyphoid is still relatively low. Strengthening the existing surveillance system for enteric fever and antimicrobial resistance at the national level is recommended in Pakistan to inform prevention measures. While typhoid vaccination can significantly decrease the burden of typhoid and may also impact antimicrobial resistance, water, sanitation, and hygiene improvement is highly recommended to prevent the spread of enteric fever.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Clinical Infectious Diseases

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.