Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a commonly recognized clinical problem after congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery. Increased perioperative morbidity, development of chronic kidney disease, and increased mortality are the major concerns. We investigated frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI after CHD surgery at our hospital.
Methods: This study was a retrospective analytic review conducted from January 2013 to October 2016 on patients aged between 1 month and 45 years who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for CHD surgery. The modified Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria based on serum creatinine value was adopted to diagnose AKI. We assessed AKI frequency and its staging, and outcomes as AKI resolution, length of stay, and mortality. Stages II and III (plasma creatinine level two or more times the baseline) were labeled as severe AKI. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted, and results were reported as mean with standard deviation and as frequencies with percentage. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for factors associated with the development of AKI.
Results: Of the 840 patients who underwent CHD surgery, 237 (28%) developed AKI. AKI stages II1 and III were seen in 101 (42%) and 103 (43%) patients, respectively. Prolonged CPB time > 120 minutes (adjusted OR [AOR]: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.22-2.88; p = 0.004) and hemoglobin > 16 gm/dL (AOR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16-2.78; p = 0.008) were associated with the development of AKI on multivariate analysis. AKI resolved spontaneously in 222 (94%) patients, and 10 (4%) patients who developed AKI died.
Conclusions: Most patients with AKI showed spontaneous resolution. Prolonged CPB time and increased hemoglobin were found to be significant risk factors. Our study found spontaneous resolution of AKI in most cases. However, preplanning and careful monitoring in patients with expected prolonged CPB time and increased baseline hemoglobin can prevent and identify AKI at an early stage.


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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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