Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: Raine syndrome (RS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations of FAM20C. The most common clinical features are microcephaly, exophthalmos, hypoplastic nose and severe midface hypoplasia, leading to choanal atresia. The radiological findings include generalized osteosclerosis and brain calcifications. RS is usually lethal during the neonatal period due to severe respiratory distress. However, there exists a non-lethal RS form, the phenotype of which is extremely heterogeneous. There is paucity of data about clinical course and life expectancy of these patients.
Results: This is the first description of follow-up features of non-lethal RS patients. Moreover, we present three unpublished cases. There are five Asian and two Arab patients. All were born to consanguineous parents. The most common neonatal comorbidity was respiratory distress secondary to choanal atresia. A variable degree of neurodevelopmental delay was seen in the majority of our cases and seizures and hearing or vision involvement were also frequent. Neurological and orthopedic issues were the most frequent complications seen at follow-up in our group. Persistent hypophosphatemic rickets was the most striking endocrinological manifestation, which was scarcely responsive to therapy with phosphate salts and alfacalcidol. Life expectancy of our patients goes beyond childhood, with the oldest of those described being 18 years old at present.
Conclusions: Manifestations of RS in those surviving the neonatal period are being increasingly recognized. Our study supports previous findings and provides clinical and biochemical observations and data from longer follow up. Finally, we propose multidisciplinary follow up for patients with non-lethal RS.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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