Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. However, pneumonia is challenging to diagnose. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a promising diagnostic technology. Further evidence is needed to better understand the role of LUS as a tool for the diagnosis of childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings.
Methods and analysis:
This study aims to pilot LUS in Mozambique and Pakistan and to generate evidence regarding the use of LUS as a diagnostic tool for childhood pneumonia. Children with cough <14 days with chest indrawing (n=230) and without chest indrawing (n=40) are enrolled. World Health Organization Integrated Management of Childhood Illness assessment is performed at enrolment, along with a chest radiograph and LUS examination. Respiratory and blood specimens are collected for viral and bacterial testing and biomarker assessment. Enrolled children are followed for 14 days (in person) and 30 days (phone call) post-enrolment with LUS examinations performed on Days 2, 6 and 14. Qualitative and quantitative data are also collected to assess feasibility, usability and acceptability of LUS among healthcare providers and caregivers. The primary outcome is LUS findings at enrolment with secondary outcomes including patient outcomes, repeat LUS findings, viral and bacterial test results, and patient status after 14 and 30 days of follow-up.
Ethics and dissemination:
This trial was approved by the Western Institutional Review Board as well as local ethics review committees at each site. We plan to disseminate study results in peer-reviewed journals and international conferences.
Trial registration number:

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ open respiratory research

Included in

Pediatrics Commons