Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health; Obstetrics and Gynaecology


Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is a common disorder associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. It is associated with abnormal placentation, which significantly reduces flow, resulting in a relative hypoxic state. These pathophysiological changes lead to subtle macrovascular and cardiac structural and functional changes in the fetus. This can predispose the child with maternal history of pre-eclampsia to risk of premature cardiovascular disease.
Methods and analysis: The children will be identified from a cohort of women with pre-eclampsia. The study will be conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Inclusion criteria will be children who are between 2 and 5 years of age and have a maternal history of pre-eclampsia. The child’s current weight, height and blood pressure will be recorded. A two-dimensional functional echocardiogram and vascular assessment will be performed to evaluate alterations in cardiac function as well as macrovascular remodelling in these children. Data will be presented as mean±SD, median (IQR) or percentages as appropriate. Independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U test will be used for testing of continuous variables (based on the assumption of normality). A p<0.05will be used to determine statistical significance.
Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval has been obtained from AKUH Ethics Review Committee. Findings will be disseminated through scientific publications and project summaries for the participants.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

BMJ Open

Included in

Pediatrics Commons