Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health; Obstetrics and Gynaecology


Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is a common disorder associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. It is associated with abnormal placentation, which significantly reduces flow, resulting in a relative hypoxic state. These pathophysiological changes lead to subtle macrovascular and cardiac structural and functional changes in the fetus. This can predispose the child with maternal history of pre-eclampsia to risk of premature cardiovascular disease.
Methods and analysis: The children will be identified from a cohort of women with pre-eclampsia. The study will be conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Inclusion criteria will be children who are between 2 and 5 years of age and have a maternal history of pre-eclampsia. The child’s current weight, height and blood pressure will be recorded. A two-dimensional functional echocardiogram and vascular assessment will be performed to evaluate alterations in cardiac function as well as macrovascular remodelling in these children. Data will be presented as mean±SD, median (IQR) or percentages as appropriate. Independent t-test or Mann-Whitney U test will be used for testing of continuous variables (based on the assumption of normality). A p<0.05will be used to determine statistical significance.
Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval has been obtained from AKUH Ethics Review Committee. Findings will be disseminated through scientific publications and project summaries for the participants.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ Open

Included in

Pediatrics Commons