Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Objective: The objective of Phase I of the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), a multiphase surveillance study characterizing the burden of disease in South Asia, was to inform data collection for prospective surveillance and to capture clinical aspects of disease.
Methods: Through a retrospective record review conducted at hospitals in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, we examined laboratory and clinical records to assess the culture positivity rate for Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi, age and sex distribution, and antimicrobial susceptability in each country.
Results: Of all blood cultures performed in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, 1.5%, 0.43%, 2%, and 1.49%, respectively, were positive for S. Typhi and 0.24%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 0.67%, respectively, were positive for S. Paratyphi. A higher proportion of laboratory-confirmed infections in Bangladesh and Pakistan were aged ≤5 years, while India and Nepal had a higher proportion of participants aged 15–25 years. In all countries, the sex of the majority of participants was male. The majority of isolates in all countries were resistant to fluoroquinolones, with a high proportion also resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Discussion: Enteric fever remains endemic in South Asia. Data generated by this study can help inform strategies for implementation and evaluation of prevention and control measures.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Pediatrics Commons