Menkes disease: A rare disorder

Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Menkes disease (MD) (OMIM: 309400) is also known as kinky hair disease, trichopoliodystrophy, and steely hair. A 7-months-old, male infant presented to our outpatient department in June 2016 with history of developmental delay and seizures. Seizures started at 3 months of age and worsened progressively to clusters of extensor spasms. Physical examination showed sparse and kinky hair. Neurological examination revealed a central hypotonia with marked decrease in muscle power with normal deep tendon reflexes. The serum ceruloplasmin level and serum copper level were decreased. Ultrasound KUB showed Hutch diverticulum along left ureteric orifice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carried out at five months of age showed frontal cortical atrophy. His EEG was consistent with hypsarrythmia pattern. Patients with classic MD usually exhibit a severe neurodegenerative course, with poor long term outcome and death before the third year of life.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association