Document Type



Women and Child Health; Paediatrics and Child Health


Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to significantly contribute to global morbidity and mortality. Disease burden is higher in low-and middle-income settings where surveillance programs are rare and little systematic information exists at population level. This review evaluates national, regional, and global trends in the incidence of typhoid fever and of related morbidity and mortality. A literature search in Medline, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted in June 2016, followed by screening and data extraction in duplicate. Studies reporting blood culture estimates of typhoid or paratyphoid morbidity and mortality were included in the analysis. Five thousand five hundred sixty-three unique records were identified, of which 1978 were assessed for relevance with 219 records meeting the eligibility criteria. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was the most commonly reported organism (91%), with the occurrence of typhoidal Salmonella (either incidence or prevalence) being the most commonly reported outcome (78%), followed by typhoid fever mortality, ileal perforation morbidity, and perforation mortality, respectively. Fewer than 50% of studies stratified outcomes by age or urban/rural locality. Surveillance data were available from 29 countries and patient-focused studies were available from 32 countries. Our review presents a mixed picture with declines reported in many regions and settings but with large gaps in surveillance and published data. Regional trends show generally high incidence rates in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific where the disease is endemic in many countries. Significant increases have been reported in certain countries but should be explored in the context of long-term trends and underlying at-risk populations.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene