Urban and rural comparison of vitamin D status in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates

Document Type



Women and Child Health; Paediatrics and Child Health


We undertook a cross-sectional study in rural Jehlum and urban Karachi to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates and to assess any association of serum 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with vitamin D binding protein (Gc) genotypes. Altogether, 390 women and 266 neonates were recruited from urban and rural sites, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by an immunoassay, while Gc genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-RFLP. One-way analysis of variance or ANOVA and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. In urban Karachi, 99.5% of women and 97.3% of neonates were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L), while 89% of women and 82% of neonates were deficient in rural Jehlum. Gc genotypes were not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in both women and their neonates. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Pakistani women and their neonates, and Gc genotypes are not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology