Dose-response study of caffeine on postnatal weight gain in premature neonates-A retrospective cohort study

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Paediatrics and Child Health; Biological and Biomedical Sciences


Background: Caffeine citrate (CC)-induced excessive energy expenditure, diuresis, natriuresis, and other CC-associated potential side effects (CC-APSEs) result in lower daily weight gain (WG) in premature neonates. This study aimed to assess higher CC-doses' effect on the mean daily-WG (MD-WG) and CC-APSE development, considering 5 mg/kg/day as the standard regimen.
Method: This retrospective cohort study included neonates of ≤36 weeks gestational age and received CC-therapy. The same participants were followed for data analysis in two postnatal phases: 15-28 and 29-42 days of life (DOL). Based on daily CC-dose, formed group-I=(5 mg/kg/day), group-II=(>5-7 mg/kg/day), and group-III=(>7 mg/kg/day). Data was analyzed separately for group-II and group-III using group-I as the standard.
Results: The study included 284 neonates. During phase-I, the MD-WG was significantly higher in group-I than group-II (19.9 ± .88 g/kg/d vs 17.5 ± .49, P = .031) and group-III (19.9 ± .88 g/kg/d vs 16.7 ± .71, P < .001). During 29-42 DOL, the MD-WG of group-I was only significantly higher than group-III (21.5 ± .42 g/kg/d vs 18.1 ± .39 g/kg/d, P = .003) and comparable with group-II. During 15-28 DOL, CC-APSEs were significantly higher in group-II and group-III but during 29-42 DOL was significant only in group-III.
Conclusion: Exposure to higher caffeine doses in this study cohort is associated with lower postnatal WG in preterm neonates than standard daily doses may be due to its catabolic effects and CC-APSEs


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