The last mile-community engagement and conditional incentives to accelerate polio eradication in Pakistan: Study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial

Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health; Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health; Institute for Global Health and Development


Poliomyelitis is a condition of great concern and is endemic in only two countries of the world: Pakistan and Afghanistan. Community mobilization plays a vital role in raising awareness and can help reduce polio vaccine refusals. The objective of this study will be to decrease polio vaccine refusals and zero-dose vaccines by motivating behavior change through the provision of conditional-collective-community-based incentives (C3Is) based on a reduction in polio vaccine refusals. The project will adopt a pretest/post-test quasi-experimental design with two intervention high-risk union councils (HRUCs) and two control union councils (UCs) of peri-urban (Karachi) and rural (Bannu) settings in Pakistan. A participatory community engagement and demand creation strategy with trust-building community mobilization with C3Is, to reduce vaccine refusals and improve polio immunization coverage in two HRUCs, will be used. These UCs will be divided into clusters based on the polio program framework and community groups will be formed in each cluster. These community groups will carry out awareness activities and will be given serial targets to reduce vaccine refusals and those who qualify will be provided C3Is. The project intends to create a replicable model that the government can integrate within health systems for long-term sustainability until the goal of eradication of poliovirus is achieved. The evaluation will be carried out by an independent data collection and analysis team at baseline and endline (after 12 months of intervention). The trial is registered with with number NCT05721274


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Methods and Protocols